Part I: Observations on the preparation and update of electoral registers and constituencies division
Part II: Observations on the electoral campaign period
Part III: Observations on elections day and announcement of results
Part IV: Conclusion and CHRLA's recommendations
The last (1995) legislative elections were of extreme importance to Egypt. On the one hand, they were the first elections in which all parties participated under the individual candidate absolute majority electoral system. On the other hand, they were the first elections to be conducted in the atmosphere of violence from which the country has been suffering and which has escalated since the beginning of the nineties. In addition, the new People's Assembly will lead the country towards a new millennium within the framework of far-reaching worldwide transformations.
This attracted the attention of all parties, political forces, and civil society institutions, including CHRLA, which are interested in the future of political participation in the country.
Thus, CHRLA participated in this important event through a series of publications. This started with a report entitled Legislative Elections in Egypt - November 1995óRights and Guarantees. This was immediately followed by three consecutive issues of the What to do if ....? series, which were Rights of the People's Assembly Candidate, Citizen Rights during the Elections, and Rights of People's Assembly Candidate Representatives.
The Center considered the idea of monitoring and field follow-up of the elections months before the idea of the National Elections Monitoring Committee was created. Preparation was under way a month before nominations were opened. The Center's attention was reinforced after the emergence of the idea of national observers to participate in the field monitoring of such a unique event, in the face of repeated official and unofficial rejections of any foreign participation.
The Center started working along with other institutions till the publication of this final report on the elections approved by the National Elections Monitoring Committee and CHRLA.
The Center obtained the information stated in this report from three main sources as follows:
Data and reports personally documented by the Center's representatives at constituencies monitored.
Reports and complaints received from candidates which were verified by the Center.
Information stated in some newspapers which were verified by the Center.
The Center based its selection of constituencies to monitor on a number of important criteria. Following are some of the most important criteria:
Participation of some prominent opposition figures.
Participation of the Islamic Alliance or Muslim Brotherhood candidates.
Constituencies where challenges were filed in previous elections, and where the Court of Cassation verified the occurrence of violations.
The Center took particular care that such constituencies were representative of the various governorates of Egypt. Following the first round of the elections, the Center added five constituencies to the list due to the many complaints received from them. Such constituencies were: Mashtul al-Suq, Sharqeya governorate; Shebeen al-Kom and Batanon, Munufiya governorate; Tahta, Sohag governorate; and Monshaat al-Qanatir, Giza.
In its monitoring of the elections, this report details the full electoral process, from the preparation of electoral registers, division of constituencies, to the period of election campaigns, where candidates exercise the right to nomination and campaigning, etc., through to the final period of the election day and vote-counting.
The report emphasizes candidates' rights throughout these periods and the most significant violations against all candidates.
Introduction | Legal intro | Part I | Part II | Part III | Part IV
Political rights and freedoms index CHRLA publications index